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PSED Making   relationships Self-confidence   and self-awareness Managing   feelings and behaviour
Birth – 11 months

• Enjoys the company of others and   seeks contact with others from birth.

• Gazes at faces and copies facial   movements. e.g. sticking out tongue, opening mouth and widening eyes.

• Responds when talked to, for   example, moves arms and legs, changes facial expression, moves body and makes   mouth movements.

• Recognises and is most responsive   to main carer’s voice: face brightens, activity increases when familiar carer   appears.

• Responds to what carer is paying   attention to, e.g. following their gaze.

• Likes cuddles and being held:   calms, snuggles in, smiles, gazes at carer’s face or strokes carer’s skin.

• Laughs and gurgles, e.g. shows   pleasure at being tickled and other physical interactions.

• Uses voice, gesture, eye contact   and facial expression to make contact with people and keep their attention.

• Is comforted by touch and   people’s faces and voices.

• Seeks physical and emotional   comfort by snuggling in to trusted adults.

• Calms from being upset when held,   rocked, spoken or sung to with soothing voice.

• Shows a range of emotions such as   pleasure, fear and excitement.

• Reacts emotionally to other   people’s emotions, e.g. smiles when smiled at and becomes distressed if hears   another child crying.

8 – 20 months

• Seeks to gain attention in a   variety of ways, drawing others into social interaction.

• Builds relationships with special   people.

• Is wary of unfamiliar people.

• Interacts with others and   explores new situations when supported by familiar person.

• Shows interest in the activities   of others and responds differently to children and adults, e.g. may be more   interested in watching children than adults or may pay more attention when   children talk to them.

• Enjoys finding own nose, eyes or   tummy as part of naming games.

• Learns that own voice and actions   have effects on others.

• Uses pointing with eye gaze to   make requests, and to share an interest.

• Engages other person to help   achieve a goal, e.g. to get an object out of reach.

• Uses familiar adult to share   feelings such as excitement or pleasure, and for ‘emotional refuelling’ when   feeling tired, stressed or frustrated.

• Growing ability to soothe   themselves, and may like to use a comfort object.

• Cooperates with caregiving   experiences, e.g. dressing.

• Beginning to understand ‘yes’,   ‘no’ and some boundaries.

16 – 26 months

• Plays alongside others.

• Uses a familiar adult as a secure   base from which to explore independently in new environments, e.g. ventures   away to play and interact with others, but returns for a cuddle or   reassurance if becomes anxious.

• Plays cooperatively with a   familiar adult, e.g. rolling a ball back and forth.

• Explores new toys and   environments, but ‘checks in’ regularly with familiar adult as and when   needed.

• Gradually able to engage in   pretend play with toys (support child to understand their own thinking may be   different from others).

• Demonstrates sense of self as an   individual, e.g. wants to do things independently, says “No” to adult.

Is aware of others’ feelings, for example, looks   concerned if hears crying or looks excited if hears a familiar happy voice.

• Growing sense of will and   determination may result in feelings of anger and frustration which are   difficult to handle, e.g. may have tantrums.

• Responds to a few appropriate   boundaries, with encouragement and support.

• Begins to learn that some things   are theirs, some things are shared, and some things belong to other people.

22 – 36 months

• Interested in others’ play and   starting to join in.

• Seeks out others to share   experiences.

• Shows affection and concern for   people who are special to them.

• May form a special friendship   with another child.

• Separates from main carer with   support and encouragement from a familiar adult.

• Expresses own preferences and   interests.

• Seeks comfort from familiar   adults when needed.

• Can express their own feelings   such as sad, happy, cross, scared, worried.

• Responds to the feelings and   wishes of others.

• Aware that some actions can hurt   or harm others.

• Tries to help or give comfort   when others are distressed.

• Shows understanding and   cooperates with some boundaries and routines.

• Can inhibit own   actions/behaviours, e.g. stop themselves from doing something they shouldn’t   do.

• Growing ability to distract self   when upset, e.g. by engaging in a new play activity.

30 – 50 months

• Can play in a group, extending   and elaborating play ideas, e.g. building up a role-play activity with other   children.

• Initiates play, offering cues to   peers to join them.

• Keeps play going by responding to   what others are saying or doing.

• Demonstrates friendly behaviour,   initiating conversations and forming good relationships with peers and   familiar adults.

• Can select and use activities and   resources with help.

• Welcomes and values praise for   what they have done.

• Enjoys responsibility of carrying   out small tasks.

• Is more outgoing towards   unfamiliar people and more confident in new social situations.

• Confident to talk to other   children when playing, and will communicate freely about own home and   community.

• Shows confidence in asking adults   for help.

• Aware of own feelings, and knows   that some actions and words can hurt others’ feelings.

• Begins to accept the needs of   others and can take turns and share resources, sometimes with support from   others.

• Can usually tolerate delay when   needs are not immediately met, and understands wishes may not always be met.

• Can usually adapt behaviour to   different events, social situations and changes in routine.

40 – 60+ months

• Initiates conversations, attends   to and takes account of what others say.

• Explains own knowledge and   understanding, and asks appropriate questions of others.

• Takes steps to resolve conflicts   with other children, e.g. finding a compromise.

Early Learning Goal

Children play co-operatively, taking   turns with others. They take account of one another’s ideas about how to   organise their activity. They show sensitivity to others’ needs and feelings,   and form positive relationships with adults and other children.

• Confident to speak to others   about own needs, wants, interests and opinions.

• Can describe self in positive   terms and talk about abilities.

Early   Learning Goal

Children   are confident to try new activities, and say why they like some activities   more than others. They are confident to speak in a familiar group, will talk   about their ideas, and will choose the resources they need for their chosen   activities. They say when they do or don’t need help.

• Understands that own actions   affect other people, for example, becomes upset or tries to comfort another   child when they realise they have upset them.

• Aware of the boundaries set, and   of behavioural expectations in the setting.

• Beginning to be able to negotiate   and solve problems without aggression, e.g. when someone has taken their toy.

Early   Learning Goal

Children   talk about how they and others show feelings, talk about their own and   others’ behaviour, and its consequences, and know that some behaviour is unacceptable.   They work as part of a group or class, and understand and follow the rules.   They adjust their behaviour to different situations, and take changes of routine   in their stride.

CAL Listening   and attention Understanding Speaking
Birth – 11 months

• Turns   toward a familiar sound then locates range of sounds with accuracy.

•   Listens to, distinguishes and responds to intonations and sounds of voices.

• Reacts   in interaction with others by smiling, looking and moving.

•   Quietens or alerts to the sound of speech.

• Looks   intently at a person talking, but stops responding if speaker turns away.

•   Listens to familiar sounds, words, or finger plays.

•   Fleeting Attention – not under child’s control, new stimuli takes whole   attention.

• Stops   and looks when hears own name.

• Starts   to understand contextual clues, e.g. familiar gestures, words and sounds.

•   Communicates needs and feelings in a variety of ways including crying,   gurgling, babbling and squealing.

• Makes   own sounds in response when talked to by familiar adults.

• Lifts   arms in anticipation of being picked up.

•   Practises and gradually develops speech sounds (babbling) to communicate with   adults; says sounds like ‘baba, nono, gogo’.

8 – 20 months

• Moves   whole bodies to sounds they enjoy, such as music or a regular beat.

• Has a   strong exploratory impulse.

•   Concentrates intently on an object or activity of own choosing for short   periods.

• Pays   attention to dominant stimulus – easily distracted by noises or other people   talking.

• Developing   the ability to follow others’ body language, including pointing and gesture.

•   Responds to the different things said when in a familiar context with a   special person (e.g. ‘Where’s   Mummy?’, ‘Where’s your nose?’).

•   Understanding of single words in context is developing, e.g. ‘cup’,   ‘milk’, ‘daddy’.

• Uses   sounds in play, e.g. ‘brrrm’ for toy car.

• Uses   single words.

•   Frequently imitates words and sounds.

• Enjoys   babbling and increasingly experiments with using sounds and words to   communicate for a range of purposes (e.g. teddy, more, no,   bye-bye.)

• Uses   pointing with eye gaze to make requests, and to share an interest.

•   Creates personal words as they begin to develop language.

16 – 26 months

•   Listens to and enjoys rhythmic patterns in rhymes and stories.

• Enjoys   rhymes and demonstrates listening by trying to join in with actions or   vocalisations.

• Rigid   attention – may appear not to hear.

•   Selects familiar objects by name and will go and find objects when asked, or   identify objects from a group.

•   Understands simple sentences (e.g. ‘Throw the ball.’)

• Copies   familiar expressions, e.g. ‘Oh dear’, ‘All gone’.

•   Beginning to put two words together (e.g. ‘want ball’, ‘more   juice’).

• Uses   different types of everyday words (nouns, verbs and adjectives, e.g. banana,   go, sleep, hot).

•   Beginning to ask simple questions.

•   Beginning to talk about people and things that are not present.

22 – 36 months

•   Listens with interest to the noises adults make when they read stories.

•   Recognises and responds to many familiar sounds, e.g. turning to a knock on   the door, looking at or going to the door.

• Shows   interest in play with sounds, songs and rhymes.

• Single   channelled attention. Can shift to a different task if attention fully   obtained – using child’s name helps focus.

•   Identifies action words by pointing to the right picture, e.g., “Who’s   jumping?”

•   Understands more complex sentences, e.g. ‘Put your toys away and   then we’ll read a book.’

•   Understands ‘who’, ‘what’, ‘where’ in simple questions (e.g. Who’s   that/can? What’s that? Where is.?).

•   Developing understanding of simple concepts (e.g. big/little).

• Uses   language as a powerful means of widening contacts, sharing feelings,   experiences and thoughts.

• Holds   a conversation, jumping from topic to topic.

• Learns   new words very rapidly and is able to use them in communicating.

• Uses   gestures, sometimes with limited talk, e.g. reaches toward toy, saying ‘I   have it’.

• Uses a   variety of questions (e.g. what, where, who).

• Uses   simple sentences (e.g.’ Mummy gonna work.’)

•   Beginning to use word endings (e.g. going, cats).

30 – 50 months

•   Listens to others one to one or in small groups, when conversation interests   them.

•   Listens to stories with increasing attention and recall.

• Joins   in with repeated refrains and anticipates key events and phrases in rhymes   and stories.

•   Focusing attention – still listen or do, but can shift own attention.

• Is   able to follow directions (if not intently focused on own choice of   activity).

•   Understands use of objects (e.g. “What do we use to cut things?’)

• Shows   understanding of prepositions such as ‘under’, ‘on top’, ‘behind’ by carrying   out an action or selecting correct picture.

•   Responds to simple instructions, e.g. to get or put away an object.

•   Beginning to understand ‘why’ and ‘how’ questions.

•   Beginning to use more complex sentences to link thoughts (e.g. using   and, because).

• Can   retell a simple past event in correct order (e.g. went   down slide, hurt finger).

• Uses   talk to connect ideas, explain what is happening and anticipate what might   happen next, recall and relive past experiences.

•   Questions why things happen and gives explanations. Asks e.g. who,   what, when, how.

• Uses a   range of tenses (e.g. play, playing, will play, played).

• Uses   intonation, rhythm and phrasing to make the meaning clear to others.

• Uses   vocabulary focused on objects and people that are of particular importance to   them.

• Builds   up vocabulary that reflects the breadth of their experiences.

• Uses   talk in pretending that objects stand for something else in play, e,g, ‘This   box is my castle.’

40 – 60+ months

•   Maintains attention, concentrates and sits quietly during appropriate   activity.

•   Two-channelled attention – can listen and do for short span.

Early Learning Goal

Children listen attentively in a range of   situations. They listen to stories, accurately anticipating key events and respond   to what they hear with relevant comments, questions or actions. They give   their attention to what others say and respond appropriately, while engaged   in another activity.

•   Responds to instructions involving a two-part sequence.

Understands   humour, e.g. nonsense rhymes, jokes.

• Able   to follow a story without pictures or props.

•   Listens and responds to ideas expressed by others in conversation or   discussion.

Early Learning Goal

Children follow instructions involving several   ideas or actions. They answer ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions about their   experiences and in response to stories or events.

•   Extends vocabulary, especially by grouping and naming, exploring the meaning   and sounds of new words.

• Uses   language to imagine and recreate roles and experiences in play situations.

• Links   statements and sticks to a main theme or intention.

• Uses   talk to organise, sequence and clarify thinking, ideas, feelings and events.

•   Introduces a storyline or narrative into their play.

Early Learning Goal

Children express themselves effectively, showing   awareness of listeners’ needs. They use past, present and future forms   accurately when talking about events that have happened or are to happen in   the future. They develop their own narratives and explanations by connecting   ideas or events.

PD Moving and   handling Health and   self-care
Birth – 11 months

• Turns   head in response to sounds and sights.

•   Gradually develops ability to hold up own head.

• Makes   movements with arms and legs which gradually become more controlled.

• Rolls   over from front to back, from back to front.

• When   lying on tummy becomes able to lift first head and then chest, supporting   self with forearms and then straight arms.

•   Watches and explores hands and feet, e.g. when lying on back lifts legs into   vertical position and grasps feet.

•   Reaches out for, touches and begins to hold objects.

•   Explores objects with mouth, often picking up an object and holding it to the   mouth.

•   Responds to and thrives on warm, sensitive physical contact and care.

•   Expresses discomfort, hunger or thirst.

•   Anticipates food routines with interest.

8 – 20 months

• Sits   unsupported on the floor.

• When   sitting, can lean forward to pick up small toys.

• Pulls   to standing, holding on to furniture or person for support.

•   Crawls, bottom shuffles or rolls continuously to move around.

• Walks   around furniture lifting one foot and stepping sideways (cruising), and walks   with one or both hands held by adult.

• Takes   first few steps independently.

• Passes   toys from one hand to the other.

• Holds   an object in each hand and brings them together in the middle, e.g. holds two   blocks and bangs them together.

• Picks   up small objects between thumb and fingers.

• Enjoys   the sensory experience of making marks in damp sand, paste or paint.

• Holds   pen or crayon using a whole hand (palmar) grasp and makes random marks with   different strokes.

• Opens   mouth for spoon.

• Holds   own bottle or cup.

• Grasps   finger foods and brings them to mouth.

•   Attempts to use spoon: can guide towards mouth but food often falls off.

• Can   actively cooperate with nappy changing (lies still, helps hold legs up).

• Starts   to communicate urination, bowel movement.

16 – 26 months

• Walks   upstairs holding hand of adult.

• Comes   downstairs backwards on knees (crawling).

•   Beginning to balance blocks to build a small tower.

• Makes   connections between their movement and the marks they make.

•   Develops own likes and dislikes in food and drink.

•   Willing to try new food textures and tastes.

• Holds   cup with both hands and drinks without much spilling.

•   Clearly communicates wet or soiled nappy or pants.

• Shows   some awareness of bladder and bowel urges.

• Shows   awareness of what a potty or toilet is used for.

• Shows   a desire to help with dressing/undressing and hygiene routines.

22 – 36 months

• Runs   safely on whole foot.

• Squats   with steadiness to rest or play with object on the ground, and rises to feet   without using hands.

• Climbs   confidently and is beginning to pull themselves up on nursery play climbing   equipment.

• Can   kick a large ball.

• Turns   pages in a book, sometimes several at once.

• Shows   control in holding and using jugs to pour, hammers, books and mark-making   tools.

•   Beginning to use three fingers (tripod grip) to hold writing tools

•   Imitates drawing simple shapes such as circles and lines.

• Walks   upstairs or downstairs holding onto a rail two feet to a step.

• May be   beginning to show preference for dominant hand.

• Feeds   self competently with spoon.

• Drinks   well without spilling.

•   Clearly communicates their need for potty or toilet.

•   Beginning to recognise danger and seeks support of significant adults for   help.

• Helps   with clothing, e.g. puts on hat, unzips zipper on jacket, takes off   unbuttoned shirt.

•   Beginning to be independent in self-care, but still often needs adult   support.

30 – 50 months

• Moves   freely and with pleasure and confidence in a range of ways, such as slithering,   shuffling, rolling, crawling, walking, running, jumping, skipping, sliding and   hopping.

• Mounts   stairs, steps or climbing equipment using alternate feet.

• Walks   downstairs, two feet to each step while carrying a small object.

• Runs   skilfully and negotiates space successfully, adjusting speed or direction to avoid   obstacles.

• Can   stand momentarily on one foot when shown.

• Can   catch a large ball.

• Draws   lines and circles using gross motor movements.

• Uses   one-handed tools and equipment, e.g. makes snips in paper with child scissors.

• Holds   pencil between thumb and two fingers, no longer using whole-hand grasp.

• Holds   pencil near point between first two fingers and thumb and uses it with good control.

• Can   copy some letters, e.g. letters from their name.

• Can   tell adults when hungry or tired or when they want to rest or play.

•   Observes the effects of activity on their bodies.

•   Understands that equipment and tools have to be used safely.

• Gains   more bowel and bladder control and can attend to toileting needs most of the   time themselves.

• Can   usually manage washing and drying hands.

•   Dresses with help, e.g. puts arms into open-fronted coat or shirt when held   up, pulls up own trousers, and pulls up zipper once it is fastened at the   bottom.

40 – 60+ months

•   Experiments with different ways of moving.

• Jumps   off an object and lands appropriately.

•   Negotiates space successfully when playing racing and chasing games with   other children, adjusting speed or changing direction to avoid obstacles.

•   Travels with confidence and skill around, under, over and through balancing   and climbing equipment.

• Shows   increasing control over an object in pushing, patting, throwing, catching or kicking   it.

• Uses   simple tools to effect changes to materials.

•   Handles tools, objects, construction and malleable materials safely and with increasing   control.

• Shows   a preference for a dominant hand.

• Begins   to use anticlockwise movement and retrace vertical lines.

• Begins   to form recognisable letters.

• Uses a   pencil and holds it effectively to form recognisable letters, most of which are   correctly formed.

Early   Learning Goal

Children show good control and co-ordination in   large and small movements. They move confidently in a range of ways, safely   negotiating space. They handle equipment and tools effectively, including   pencils for writing.

• Eats a   healthy range of foodstuffs and understands need for variety in food.

•   Usually dry and clean during the day.

• Shows   some understanding that good practices with regard to exercise, eating,   sleeping and hygiene can contribute to good health.

• Shows   understanding of the need for safety when tackling new challenges, and   considers and manages some risks.

• Shows   understanding of how to transport and store equipment safely.

•   Practices some appropriate safety measures without direct supervision.

Early Learning Goal

Children know the importance for good health of   physical exercise, and a healthy diet, and talk about ways to keep healthy   and safe. They manage their own basic hygiene and personal needs   successfully, including dressing and going to the toilet independently.

Literacy Reading Writing
Birth – 11 months • Enjoys   looking at books and other printed material with familiar people.  
8 – 20 months •   Handles books and printed material with interest.  
16 – 26 months •   Interested in books and rhymes and may have favourites.  
22 – 36 months

• Has   some favourite stories, rhymes, songs, poems or jingles.

•   Repeats words or phrases from familiar stories.

• Fills   in the missing word or phrase in a known rhyme, story or game, e.g. ‘Humpty   Dumpty sat on a …’.

•   Distinguishes between the different marks they make.
30 – 50 months

• Enjoys   rhyming and rhythmic activities.

• Shows   awareness of rhyme and alliteration.

•   Recognises rhythm in spoken words.

•   Listens to and joins in with stories and poems, one-to-one and also in small   groups.

• Joins   in with repeated refrains and anticipates key events and phrases in rhymes   and stories.

•   Beginning to be aware of the way stories are structured.

• Suggests   how the story might end.

•   Listens to stories with increasing attention and recall.

•   Describes main story settings, events and principal characters.

• Shows   interest in illustrations and print in books and print in the environment.

•   Recognises familiar words and signs such as own name and advertising logos.

• Looks   at books independently.

•   Handles books carefully.

• Knows   information can be relayed in the form of print.

• Holds   books the correct way up and turns pages.

• Knows   that print carries meaning and, in English, is read from left to right and   top to bottom.

•   Sometimes gives meaning to marks as they draw and paint.

•   Ascribes meanings to marks that they see in different places.

40 – 60+ months

•   Continues a rhyming string.

• Hears   and says the initial sound in words.

• Can   segment the sounds in simple words and blend them together and knows which   letters represent some of them.

• Links   sounds to letters, naming and sounding the letters of the alphabet.

• Begins   to read words and simple sentences.

• Uses   vocabulary and forms of speech that are increasingly influenced by their   experiences of books.

• Enjoys   an increasing range of books.

• Knows   that information can be retrieved from books and computers.

Early Learning Goal

Children read and understand simple sentences.   They use phonic knowledge to decode regular words and read them aloud   accurately. They also read some common irregular words. They demonstrate   understanding when talking with others about what they have read.

• Gives   meaning to marks they make as they draw, write and paint.

• Begins   to break the flow of speech into words.

•   Continues a rhyming string.

• Hears   and says the initial sound in words.

• Can   segment the sounds in simple words and blend them together.

• Links   sounds to letters, naming and sounding the letters of the alphabet.

• Uses   some clearly identifiable letters to communicate meaning, representing some   sounds correctly and in sequence.

• Writes   own name and other things such as labels,captions.

•   Attempts to write short sentences in meaningful contexts.

Early Learning Goal

Children use their phonic knowledge to write   words in ways which match their spoken sounds. They also write some irregular   common words. They write simple sentences which can be read by themselves and   others. Some words are spelt correctly and others are phonetically plausible.

Maths Numbers Shape, space and   measure
Birth – 11 months •   Notices changes in number of objects/images or sounds in a group of up to 3.  
8 – 20 months

•   Develops an awareness of number names through their enjoyment of action   rhymes and songs that relate to their experience of numbers.

• Has   some understanding that things exist, even when out of sight.

•   Recognises big things and small things in meaningful contexts.

• Gets   to know and enjoy daily routines, such as getting-up time, mealtimes, nappy   time, and bedtime.

16 – 26 months

• Knows   that things exist, even when out of sight.

•   Beginning to organise and categorise objects, e.g. putting all the teddy   bears together or teddies and cars in separate piles.

• Says   some counting words randomly.

•   Attempts, sometimes successfully, to fit shapes into spaces on inset boards   or jigsaw puzzles.

• Uses   blocks to create their own simple structures and arrangements.

• Enjoys   filling and emptying containers.

•   Associates a sequence of actions with daily routines.

•   Beginning to understand that things might happen ‘now’.

22 – 36 months

•   Selects a small number of objects from a group when asked, for example, ‘please   give me one’, ‘please give me two’.

•   Recites some number names in sequence.

•   Creates and experiments with symbols and marks representing ideas of number.

• Begins   to make comparisons between quantities.

• Uses   some language of quantities, such as ‘more’ and ‘a   lot’.

• Knows that   a group of things changes in quantity when something is added or taken away.

•   Notices simple shapes and patterns in pictures.

•   Beginning to categorise objects according to properties such as shape or   size.

• Begins   to use the language of size.

• Understands   some talk about immediate past and future, e.g. ‘before’, ‘later’ or ‘soon’.

•   Anticipates specific time-based events such as mealtimes or home time.

30 – 50 months

• Uses   some number names and number language spontaneously.

• Uses   some number names accurately in play.

•   Recites numbers in order to 10.

• Knows   that numbers identify how many objects are in a set.

•   Beginning to represent numbers using fingers, marks on paper or pictures.

•   Sometimes matches numeral and quantity correctly.

• Shows   curiosity about numbers by offering comments or asking questions.

•   Compares two groups of objects, saying when they have the same number.

• Shows   an interest in number problems.

•   Separates a group of three or four objects in different ways, beginning to recognise   that the total is still the same.

• Shows   an interest in numerals in the environment.

• Shows   an interest in representing numbers.

•   Realises not only objects, but anything can be counted, including steps,   claps or jumps.

• Shows   an interest in shape and space by playing with shapes or making arrangements   with objects.

• Shows   awareness of similarities of shapes in the environment.

• Uses   positional language.

• Shows   interest in shape by sustained construction activity or by talking about   shapes or arrangements.

• Shows   interest in shapes in the environment.

• Uses   shapes appropriately for tasks.

•   Beginning to talk about the shapes of everyday objects, e.g. ‘round’ and ‘tall’.

40 – 60+ months

•   Recognise some numerals of personal significance.

• Recognises   numerals 1 to 5.

• Counts   up to three or four objects by saying one number name for each item.

• Counts   actions or objects which cannot be moved.

• Counts   objects to 10, and beginning to count beyond 10.

• Counts   out up to six objects from a larger group.

•   Selects the correct numeral to represent 1 to 5, then 1 to 10 objects.

• Counts   an irregular arrangement of up to ten objects.

•   Estimates how many objects they can see and checks by counting them.

• Uses   the language of ‘more’ and ‘fewer’ to compare two sets of objects.

• Finds   the total number of items in two groups by counting all of them.

• Says   the number that is one more than a given number.

• Finds   one more or one less from a group of up to five objects, then ten objects.

• In   practical activities and discussion, beginning to use the vocabulary involved   in adding and subtracting.

•   Records, using marks that they can interpret and explain.

• Begins   to identify own mathematical problems based on own interests and   fascinations.

Early Learning Goal

Children count reliably with numbers from one to   20, place them in order and say which number is one more or one less than a   given number. Using quantities and objects, they add and subtract two   single-digit numbers and count on or back to find the answer. They solve

problems, including doubling, halving and   sharing.

•   Beginning to use mathematical names for ‘solid’ 3D shapes and ‘flat’ 2D   shapes, and mathematical terms to describe shapes.

•   Selects a particular named shape.

• Can   describe their relative position such as ‘behind’ or ‘next   to’.

• Orders   two or three items by length or height.

• Orders   two items by weight or capacity.

• Uses   familiar objects and common shapes to create and recreate patterns and build   models.

• Uses   everyday language related to time.

•   Beginning to use everyday language related to money.

• Orders   and sequences familiar events.

•   Measures short periods of time in simple ways.

Early Learning Goal

Children use everyday language to talk about   size, weight, capacity, position, distance, time and money to compare   quantities and objects and to solve problems. They recognise, create and   describe patterns. They explore characteristics of everyday objects and   shapes and use mathematical language to describe them.

UW People and   communities The world Technology
Birth – 11 months  

• Moves   eyes, then head, to follow moving objects.

• Reacts   with abrupt change when a face or object suddenly disappears from view.

• Looks   around a room with interest; visually scans environment for novel,   interesting objects and events.

• Smiles   with pleasure at recognisable playthings.

•   Repeats actions that have an effect, e.g. kicking or hitting a mobile or   shaking a rattle.

See   also Characteristics   of Effective Learning – Playing and Exploring, and   Physical   Development

8 – 20 months  

•   Closely observes what animals, people and vehicles do.

•   Watches toy being hidden and tries to find it.

• Looks   for dropped objects.

•   Becomes absorbed in combining objects, e.g. banging two objects or placing   objects into containers.

• Knows   things are used in different ways, e.g. a ball for rolling or throwing, a toy   car for pushing.

16 – 26 months

• Is   curious about people and shows interest in stories about themselves and their   family.

• Enjoys   pictures and stories about themselves, their families and other people.

•   Explores objects by linking together different approaches: shaking, hitting,   looking, feeling, tasting, mouthing, pulling, turning and poking.

•   Remembers where objects belong.

•   Matches parts of objects that fit together, e.g. puts lid on teapot.

•   Anticipates repeated sounds, sights and actions, e.g. when an adult   demonstrates an action toy several times.

• Shows   interest in toys with buttons, flaps and simple mechanisms and beginning to   learn to operate them.

22 – 36 months

• Has a   sense of own immediate family and relations.

• In   pretend play, imitates everyday actions and events from own family and   cultural background, e.g. making and drinking tea.

•   Beginning to have their own friends.

• Learns   that they have similarities and differences that connect them to, and   distinguish them from, others.

• Enjoys   playing with small-world models such as a farm, a garage, or a train track.

•   Notices detailed features of objects in their environment

• Seeks   to acquire basic skills in turning on and operating some ICT equipment.

•   Operates mechanical toys, e.g. turns the knob on a wind-up toy or pulls back   on a friction car.

30 – 50 months

• Shows   interest in the lives of people who are familiar to them.

• Remembers   and talks about significant events in their own experience.

•   Recognises and describes special times or events for family or friends.

• Shows   interest in different occupations and ways of life.

• Knows   some of the things that make them unique, and can talk about some of the   similarities and differences in relation to friends or family.

•   Comments and asks questions about aspects of their familiar world such as the   place where they live or the natural world.

• Can   talk about some of the things they have observed such as plants, animals,   natural and found objects.

• Talks   about why things happen and how things work.

•   Developing an understanding of growth, decay and changes over time.

• Shows   care and concern for living things and the environment.

• Knows   how to operate simple equipment, e.g. turns on CD player and uses remote   control.

• Shows   an interest in technological toys with knobs or pulleys, or real objects such   as cameras or mobile phones.

• Shows   skill in making toys work by pressing parts or lifting flaps to achieve   effects such as sound, movements or new images.

• Knows   that information can be retrieved from computers

40 – 60+ months

• Enjoys   joining in with family customs and routines.

Early Learning Goal

Children talk about past and present events in   their own lives and in the lives of family members. They know that other   children don’t always enjoy the same things, and are sensitive to this. They   know about similarities and differences between themselves and others, and   among families, communities and traditions.

• Looks   closely at similarities, differences, patterns and change.

Early Learning Goal

Children know about similarities and differences   in relation to places, objects, materials and living things. They talk about   the features of their own immediate environment and how environments might   vary from one another. They make observations of animals and plants and   explain why some things occur, and talk about changes.

•   Completes a simple program on a computer.

• Uses   ICT hardware to interact with age-appropriate computer software.

Early Learning Goal

Children recognise that a range of technology is   used in places such as homes and schools. They select and use technology for   particular purposes.

EAD Exploring and using   media and materials Being imaginative
Birth – 11 months    
8 – 20 months

•   Explores and experiments with a range of media through sensory exploration,   and using whole body.

• Move   their whole bodies to sounds they enjoy, such as music or a regular beat.

•   Imitates and improvises actions they have observed, e.g. clapping or waving.

16 – 26 months

• Begins   to move to music, listen to or join in rhymes or songs.

•   Notices and is interested in the effects of making movements which leave   marks.

•   Expresses self through physical action and sound.

•   Pretends that one object represents another, especially when objects have   characteristics in common

22 – 36 months

• Joins   in singing favourite songs.

•   Creates sounds by banging, shaking, tapping or blowing.

• Shows   an interest in the way musical instruments sound.

•   Experiments with blocks, colours and marks.

•   Beginning to use representation to communicate, e.g. drawing a line and   saying ‘That’s me.’

•   Beginning to make-believe by pretending.

30 – 50 months

• Enjoys   joining in with dancing and ring games.

• Sings   a few familiar songs.

•   Beginning to move rhythmically.

•   Imitates movement in response to music.

• Taps   out simple repeated rhythms.

•   Explores and learns how sounds can be changed.

•   Explores colour and how colours can be changed.

•   Understands that they can use lines to enclose a space, and then begin to use   these shapes to represent objects.

•   Beginning to be interested in and describe the texture of things

• Uses   various construction materials.

•   Beginning to construct, stacking blocks vertically and horizontally, making   enclosures and creating spaces.

• Joins   construction pieces together to build and balance.

•   Realises tools can be used for a purpose.

•   Developing preferences for forms of expression.

• Uses   movement to express feelings.

•   Creates movement in response to music.

• Sings   to self and makes up simple songs.

• Makes   up rhythms.

•   Notices what adults do, imitating what is observed and then doing it   spontaneously when the adult is not there.

•   Engages in imaginative role-play based on own first-hand experiences.

• Builds   stories around toys, e.g. farm animals needing rescue from an armchair   ‘cliff’.

• Uses   available resources to create props to support role-play.

•   Captures experiences and responses with a range of media, such as music,   dance and paint and other materials or words.

40 – 60+ months

• Begins   to build a repertoire of songs and dances.

•   Explores the different sounds of instruments.

•   Explores what happens when they mix colours.

•   Experiments to create different textures.

•   Understands that different media can be combined to create new effects.

•   Manipulates materials to achieve a planned effect.

•   Constructs with a purpose in mind, using a variety of resources.

• Uses   simple tools and techniques competently and appropriately.

•   Selects appropriate resources and adapts work where necessary.

•   Selects tools and techniques needed to shape, assemble and join materials   they are using.

Early Learning Goal

Children sing songs, make music and dance, and   experiment with ways of changing them. They safely use and explore a variety   of materials, tools and techniques, experimenting with colour, design,   texture, form and function.

• Create   simple representations of events, people and objects.

•   Initiates new combinations of movement and gesture in order to express and   respond to feelings, ideas and experiences.

•   Chooses particular colours to use for a purpose.

•   Introduces a storyline or narrative into their play.

• Plays   alongside other children who are engaged in the same theme.

• Plays   cooperatively as part of a group to develop and act out a narrative.

Early Learning Goal

Children use what they have learnt about media   and materials in original ways, thinking about uses and purposes. They   represent their own ideas, thoughts and feelings through design and   technology, art, music, dance, role play and stories.

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